Download Systems and software verification by Berard B., Bidoit M., Finkel A., et al. (eds.) PDF

By Berard B., Bidoit M., Finkel A., et al. (eds.)

Version checking is a robust strategy for the formal verification of software program. It immediately presents whole proofs of correctness, or explains, through counter-examples, why a method isn't really right. the following, the writer presents a good written and easy advent to the recent procedure. the 1st half describes basically the theoretical foundation of version checking: transition structures as a proper version of platforms, temporal common sense as a proper language for behavioral houses, and model-checking algorithms. the second one half explains tips to write wealthy and based temporal common sense requirements in perform, whereas the 3rd half surveys many of the significant version checkers to be had.

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In both cases we pass the result to the method puts, which simply outputs its argument followed by a newline (moving on to the next line of output). Good night, John-Boy Good night, Mary-Ellen The line puts say_goodnight("John-Boy") contains two method calls, one to the method say_goodnight and the other to the method puts. Why does one call have its arguments in parentheses while the other doesn’t? In this case it’s purely a matter of taste. The following lines are both equivalent. puts say_goodnight("John-Boy") puts(say_goodnight("John-Boy")) However, life isn’t always that simple, and precedence rules can make it difficult to know which argument goes with which method invocation, so we recommend using parentheses in all but the simplest cases.

Ruby doesn’t use braces to delimit the bodies of compound statements and definitions. Instead, you simply finish the body with the keyword end. Our method’s body is pretty simple. The first line concatenates the literal string "Good night, " and the parameter name and assigns the result to the local variable result. The next line returns that result to the caller. Note that we didn’t have to declare the variable result; it sprang into existence when we assigned to it. Having defined the method, we call it twice.

In fact, defining a method name ending in an equals sign makes that name eligible to appear on the left side of an assignment. Again, Ruby provides a shortcut for creating these simple attribute-setting methods. duration = 257 Virtual Attributes These attribute-accessing methods do not have to be just simple wrappers around an object’s instance variables. For example, you may want to access the duration in minutes and fractions of a minute, rather than in seconds as we’ve been doing. duration → 252 Here we’ve used attribute methods to create a virtual instance variable.

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