By Izak Bos, Peter Caligari
Written for plant breeders, researchers and post-graduate scholars, this e-book offers a entire evaluate of the tools and underlying theoretical foundations used for choice in plant breeding programmes. The authors assessment simple components of inhabitants and quantitative genetic idea, and examine in a distinct means the tackling of the issues offered by way of soil heterogeneity and intergenotypic festival whilst picking out quantitative characters.
The efficacy of alternative tools in regards to constructing new different types of plants are mentioned for various modes of copy.
This paintings offers a legitimate foundation for trained selection making in the technique of a range programme.
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Additional info for Selection Methods in Plant Breeding
3 Autotetraploid Chromosome Behaviour and Self-Fertilization Spontaneous self-fertilization as the natural mode of reproduction occurs rather rarely among crops with an autotetraploid chromosome behaviour. The somatic chromosome number of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is 2n = 36. The basic chromosome number for the genus Chenopodium is x = 9. This suggests that quinoa is a tetraploid. Ward (2000) found for the same locus both diploid and tetraploid behaviour. Simmonds (1976) reported that selﬁng predominates, without evident inbreeding depression.
This concerns plants which are heterozygous for one or two loci. For each single locus the Hardy–Weinberg genotypic composition occurs in G1 and all later generations). 8). e. 10a). Thereafter an equation describing the haplotype frequencies in generations due to continued panmictic reproduction, starting with a singlecross hybrid, is derived. The frequency of gametes with haplotype ab The relevant genotypes, their frequencies (in general, as well as after panmixis) and the haplotypic composition of the gametes they produce are: Genotype frequency Genotype aabb Aabb AAbb aaBb AB ab in general f00 f10 f20 f01 f11C after panmixis g00 2 2g00 g10 g10 2 2g00 g01 2g00 g11 Haplotype frequency ab 1 0 aB 0 0 0 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 rc 1 2 Ab aB f11R 2g10 g01 − 12 rc 1 2 rc AABb aaBB AaBB AABB f21 f02 f12 f22 2g01 g11 g01 2 2g01 g11 g11 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 − 21 rc 0 1 1 2 0 Ab 0 1 0 AB 0 0 0 0 1 2 rc 1 2 1 2 1 2 − 12 rc 1 2 rc 1 2 1 2 0 0 0 0 − 12 rc 1 2 1 24 2 Population Genetic Eﬀects of Cross-fertilization The frequency of gametes with haplotype ab, produced by generation Gt , are equal to g00,t+1 = f00,t + = f00,t + 1 2 f10,t 1 2 f10,t + + 1 2 f01,t 1 2 f01,t + + 1 2 (1 − rc )f11C,t 1 2 f11C,t − rc dt + 1 2 rc f11R,t One may derive likewise g01,t+1 = f02, t + g10,t+1 = f20, t + g11,t+1 = f22, t + 1 2 f01, t 1 2 f10, t 1 2 f21, t + + + 1 2 f12, t 1 2 f21, t 1 2 f12, t + + + 1 2 f11R, t 1 2 f11R, t 1 2 f11C, t + rc dt + rc dt − rc dt Panmictic reproduction of generation Gt yields generation Gt+1 .
58). In regular systems of inbreeding the degree of relatedness of the mating plants is uniform across all pairs of mating plants. In this book no attention is given to the determination of the degree of relatedness. Regular systems of inbreeding are far more common in plant breeding than irregular systems. No attention will, therefore, be given to irregular systems of inbreeding. The counterpart of inbreeding is outbreeding. With outbreeding mating plants are on the average less related than random pairs of plants.