By Hall E. H.

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**Additional resources for On Electrons that are ''Pulled Out'' from Metals**

**Example text**

Suppose, for example, that R1 , R2 , R3 and R4 are all subsets of S, and that we also know that R2 ⊆ R1 , R1 and R3 share some elements in common but R4 has no elements in common with any of the other three subsets. We would represent this situation in the Venn diagram shown in Fig. 3. The set S, which is drawn as a rectangular box, is sometimes called the universal set when all other sets under consideration are subsets of it. Exercise: Find examples of subsets R1 , . . , R4 satisfying the above conditions when S is (a) S1 (dice), (b) S2 (planets).

3 Combinations 15 Readers should convince themselves of the following simple facts n n = , r n−r n n = = 1, 0 n n n = = n. 1 n−1 Before further investigation of the properties of binomial coefﬁcients, we’ll summarise our results on sampling. 4 Suppose a group of r objects is chosen from a larger group of size n. The number of possible groups of size r is: (i) nr if the sampling is with replacement, n! (ii) (n−r)! if the sampling is without replacement and the order is relevant, (iii) n r = n! r!

In this section we will attempt to clarify this relationship. We begin by contemplating some of the ways in which chance enters our lives. Consider the following statements: (S1) There is a one in two chance that this coin will come up tails. (S2) There’s a strong chance that Wales will beat Denmark in the match tonight. 56. Each of these statements manifests a different way in which chance is used in everyday language. We will examine each of them in turn. 1 Probability by symmetry Consider a fair coin which we know to have no defects.