By Martin W. Bauer, George Gaskell
From the mid Nineties to the current day, agricultural biotechnology - GM vegetation and meals - has been the point of interest of dialogue and clash in lots of eu nations. Contrasting perspectives of hazards and advantages, belief in technology and rules, the knowledge of technological know-how, media assurance and mobilization of the general public via civil society teams - all were mentioned as drivers of public opinion. Designed partly to allay public issues approximately GM agriculture, a eu moratorium resulted in a brand new regulatory framework. The lengthy operating controversy is a sign that the public's view can't be overlooked within the improvement and implementation of latest applied sciences coming up out of genomics. but, agricultural biotechnologies are yet one improvement during this sector. Genetic checking out and the makes use of of genetic info, the cloning of human cells and tissues, and transgenic animals are almost certainly no much less not easy for the general public and regulators alike. This quantity, through a global crew of social scientists from Europe, North the United States and Japan, offers a chain of comparative views at the social, moral and criminal implications of genomics. the purpose is to trap classes from the controversies of the Nineteen Nineties and to elevate the extent of dialogue at the societal implications of recent advancements in genomics.
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Extra info for Genomics and society : legal, ethical and social dimensions
Who is entitled to access the databases, for what purposes, under what circumstances, and how? What are the specific conditions of access for research, medical intervention and forensic uses? Are uses for insurance purposes legitimate? When is it legitimate for employers to use genetic testing for hiring staff and for workplace safety purposes? What safeguards against abusive access are available? Are the threats of misuse or abuse of genetic information different from those that apply to other, more common forms of use of medical or personal information?
Compared with their genetic profiles. The best example of this is Iceland, where in 1998 the parliament allowed the whole population’s individual health records to be passed on to a large database without patients’ explicit prior consent. Individuals are given the opportunity to opt out should they not wish to be a part of the study. Access is in the hands of a private company, DeCode. They use this information in conjunction with widely available records of Icelandic family histories and donated genetic material to identify genes involved in simple and complex diseases.
The product sold was to be knowledge, not blood samples. Up to half of the volume of each sample may be used by Uman Genomics. The privacy protocols and the fact that Uman Genomics had a majority public ownership meant that the design of the operations was seen as ethically exemplary (Abbott, 1999). The company was not a commercial success. In April 2002, the county council approved a revised contract. Uman Genomics is no longer required to report the results of the analyses to the biobank but can wait until a patent is sought.