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By Rebecca Wirfs-Brock

functional and down-to-earth in procedure, this bestseller explores the paintings of designing object-oriented software program. It deals easy layout rules and a selected layout method that may be utilized to any software program programming attempt -- even these now not utilizing object-oriented programming languages or environments. Covers the innovations of object-oriented know-how, provides a strategy to use these innovations, the instruments to exploit through the technique, and examples to place all of it jointly. For builders of object-oriented software program.

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In both cases we pass the result to the method puts, which simply outputs its argument followed by a newline (moving on to the next line of output). Good night, John-Boy Good night, Mary-Ellen The line puts say_goodnight("John-Boy") contains two method calls, one to the method say_goodnight and the other to the method puts. Why does one call have its arguments in parentheses while the other doesn’t? In this case it’s purely a matter of taste. The following lines are both equivalent. puts say_goodnight("John-Boy") puts(say_goodnight("John-Boy")) However, life isn’t always that simple, and precedence rules can make it difficult to know which argument goes with which method invocation, so we recommend using parentheses in all but the simplest cases.

Ruby doesn’t use braces to delimit the bodies of compound statements and definitions. Instead, you simply finish the body with the keyword end. Our method’s body is pretty simple. The first line concatenates the literal string "Good night, " and the parameter name and assigns the result to the local variable result. The next line returns that result to the caller. Note that we didn’t have to declare the variable result; it sprang into existence when we assigned to it. Having defined the method, we call it twice.

In fact, defining a method name ending in an equals sign makes that name eligible to appear on the left side of an assignment. Again, Ruby provides a shortcut for creating these simple attribute-setting methods. duration = 257 Virtual Attributes These attribute-accessing methods do not have to be just simple wrappers around an object’s instance variables. For example, you may want to access the duration in minutes and fractions of a minute, rather than in seconds as we’ve been doing. duration → 252 Here we’ve used attribute methods to create a virtual instance variable.

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