By Lee A. Segel, Irun R. Cohen
Layout ideas for the Immune procedure and different disbursed self reliant platforms is the 1st booklet to ascertain the interior workings of this type of number of dispensed self reliant systems--from insect colonies to excessive point laptop courses to the immune process. It deals perception into the interesting international of those platforms that emerge from the interactions of possible independent elements and brings us updated at the country of analysis in those components. utilizing the immune process and sure elements of its services as a major version, this ebook examines a few of the best and troubling questions posed through complicated platforms. How do structures pick out the perfect set of brokers to accomplish acceptable activities with applicable intensities at acceptable occasions? How within the immune method, ant colonies and metabolic networks does the diffusion and binding of a big number of chemical compounds to their receptors allow coordination of procedure motion? What merits force some of the structures to complexity, and by means of what mechanisms do the platforms deal with the tendency towards unwieldiness and randomness of enormous advanced platforms?
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Additional resources for Design Principles for the Immune System and Other Distributed Autonomous Systems (Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity Proceedings)
Both TNFa and IL-1 induce increased expression of adhesion molecules on vascular endothelial cells. TNF-a stimulates expression of ELAM-1, an endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule that selectively binds to neutrophils. IL-1 can also induce increased expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, the intercellular adhesion molecules for lymphocytes arid rnonocytes. IL-1 and TNF-a also act on macrophages and endothelial cells, inducing production of IL-8. IL-8 is a potent chemotactic factor and contributes to the recruitment of neutrophils by increasing their adhesion to vascular endothelial cells.
However, as with most biological systems, exceptions to this rule do occur. ) are produced primarily only by T cells. Thus, it appears that the most characteristic features of cytokines, those that distinguish them from hormones, are the redundancy and pleiotropy of cytokine actions. , TNF and IL-1) can be remarkably equivalent in their actions and where individual cytokines tend to exert a multitude of actions on different cells and tissues. 36Cytokines Having shown that some differences clearly exist, it is equally important to recognize that cytokines, growth factors, and polypeptide hormones all function as extracellular signaling molecules displaying virtually similar mechanisms of actions.
Minutes) and secreted. Monocytes and macrophages appear to be the first to release IL-6 upon a inflammatory signal. The monocyte/rnacrophage inflammatory products IL-1 and TNF are strong inducers of IL-6 release from stromal cell populations such as fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and kertinocytes though they are not the exclusive producers of this cytokine. However, they do represent a significant number of cells that potentially contribute to the rapid rise in the local synthesis of IL-6 and its eventual systemic distribution.