By Caroline Jean Acker
Heroin used to be just one drug between many who anxious revolutionary period anti-vice reformers, yet via the mid-twentieth century, heroin habit got here to represent irredeemable deviance. growing the yank Junkie examines how psychiatristsand psychologists produced a development of opiate addicts as deviants with inherently improper personalities stuck within the grip of a dependency from which few could ever break out. Their portrayal of the harsh city addict helped bolster the federal government's coverage of drug prohibition and created a social context that made the lifetime of the yank heroin addict, or junkie, extra, no longer much less, precarious within the wake of innovative period reforms.Weaving jointly the debts of addicts and researchers, Acker examines how the development of dependancy within the early 20th century was once strongly stimulated by way of the pro issues of psychiatrists trying to bring up their scientific authority; by means of the disciplinary goals of pharmacologists to construct a drug improvement infrastructure; and by means of the yank clinical Association's crusade to minimize prescriptions of opiates and to absolve physicians in deepest perform from the need of treating tricky addicts as sufferers. against this, early sociological reports of heroin addicts shaped a foundation for criticizing the criminalization of habit. by way of 1940, Acker concludes, a specific configuration of principles approximately opiate habit used to be firmly in position and remained primarily reliable until eventually the large demographic adjustments in drug use of the Sixties and Nineteen Seventies triggered alterations within the realizing of addiction—and in public coverage.
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Extra resources for Creating the American Junkie: Addiction Research in the Classic Era of Narcotic Control
Licenses to possess opiates were to be granted primarily to pharmacists and physicians, and members of the public could thereafter obtain opiates only through a doctor’s prescription. Two forms of access to opiates were thus cut off: the drugs were no longer freely available in medications anyone could purchase; and legal supplies for recreational use were no longer available. ) Because of the law’s tax provisions and its focus on interstate commerce, the Treasury Department was charged with its enforcement.
40 In 1914, when she was 17, a physician spotted her on the street and persuaded her to take a drive with him. Other drives followed, and soon the couple began going to parties together. After a time, the physician separated from his wife and moved Mary into his home; she began helping with his practice, including keeping his books. Soon thereafter, she discovered that he was a regular user of morphine. She made some attempt to dissuade him from using it, but then allowed him to give her injections of the drug.
At the same time, in the context of Progressive Era reform and the scientiﬁc reform of medicine, opiates also symbolized problems of concern to individual physicians and to the American Medical Association, which sought to represent those physicians’ interests. Concern about exaggerated therapeutic claims, deceptive labeling, and wholesale swallowing of frequently harmful drugs in America’s unregulated medical marketplace led Progressive Era muckrakers like Samuel Hopkins Adams to press for the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906.