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By 1995, the licensed exports had been reduced to 142. In addition to licences, quotas have also been imposed on some staple, fresh and live goods whose prices are unstable in the world market. In the late 1980s, the licensed and quota-licensed exports amounted to roughly half of total export values, or about a quarter if crude petroleum and refined petroleum products were excluded (World Bank 1988:163). To accelerate the process of trade liberalization, MOFERT has implemented a new export administrative procedure since the beginning of 1993.

The retained foreign exchange could be used to upgrade export production facilities or buy imports for local use. In 1979, the retained exchange was set on the basis of FTC's above-quota export procurements in the previous year (State Council 1979b). It was modified in 1982 to be based on actual foreign exchange earnings in order to encourage exports and not export procurements (State Council 1982). The retention rate was later used by the government to pursue diverse objectives such as targeting certain industries or promoting regional development.

Equipment and parts TV sets, videos, radio, etc. Note: Contents are given only for those commodity groups whose descriptions are not self-evident. advantage, the relative intensity of primary factors used in production±the factor intensity±should be identified. In trade theory, commodities are usually distinguished in terms of the relative intensities of primary factors used in their production. This classification is based on the Heckscher±Ohlin theorem. In a simple Heckscher±Ohlin model with two factors of production, labour and capital, commodities are conveniently divided as labour- and capital-intensive, respectively.

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