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By Walter E. Kaegi

It is a learn of the way and why the Byzantine empire misplaced lots of its most beneficial provinces to Islamic conquerors within the 7th century, provinces that integrated Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Armenia. It investigates stipulations at the eve of these conquests, errors in Byzantine coverage towards the Muslims, the process the army campaigns, and the matter of neighborhood respectable and civilian collaboration with the Muslims. It additionally seeks to give an explanation for how after a few bad losses the Byzantine executive accomplished a few highbrow explanation of its failures and commenced the complicated technique of reworking and adapting its economic and armed forces associations and political controls on the way to hinder additional disintegration.

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Modern scholarship has greatly advanced historical understanding of the conquests, with greater emphasis on the conquests of Iraq than of the The problem 25 Mediterranean coast and its hinterland. 63 Yet the chronology of conquests in Syria remains obscure, as do the actions of the Byzantines, which necessarily were not the specific object of any Islamicist's investigation. Although it may have some implications for Islamic studies and for the early history of the caliphate, an additional goal is clarification of obscurities in the history of Byzantium.

188); Heraclius' warning to Christians to guard cities = Palmer, Chronicles, part 2, text 13: c. 48. W. E. , " T h e Crisis in Military Historiography," Armed Forces and Society 7 (1981) 299-316. 18 Byzantium and the early Islamic conquests mind, as well as broader trends in military historiography, it is desirable to reconsider critical years of the Muslim conquests and the Byzantine evacuation of Palestine, Syria, and Mesopotamia. " In addition to the Muslim sources who speak of the futuh or "victories," moral or material, by war or peacefully or "conquests," from the root of the verb to be victorious or conquer or open, no less significant a Byzantine source than the early ninth-century chronicler called Theophanes also refers to the ImKpccrrjCJis or "conquest" by the Arabs.

Bitrik," El2 1: 1249-50. cubicularius: Ibn 'Asakir 1:476 Munajjid; al-'Usfurl 1: 87; al-Tabarl i 2125, 2126. Zacos/Veglery, BLS contains a Bocdvns w h o is cubicularius (no. 566) and another (no. 1086) imperial chartoularios. But another seventh-century Baanes has the title on a seal (no. ). There is no conclusive identification here. It may be tempting to identify one of these seventh-century seals with the Vahan who commanded at Yarmuk, but that identification cannot be confirmed. Drungarius: al-Tabarl i 2108, 2127.

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