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This publication relates the advance of Anglo-Australian-New Zealand kinfolk in the course of and instantly after the second one international battle to the position of the U.S. within the South-west Pacific. according to the result of entire multi-archival study, the publication highlights the level of American-Commonwealth competition within the quarter and following the obstacle of overdue 1941 and early 1942 demonstrates how the reforging of imperial hyperlinks was once formed through the growth of yank energy in Pacific parts south of the equator. It offers a tremendous and well timed reassessment of the commercial, political and strategic elements that led Britain, Australia and New Zealand to finish that the postwar affairs of the South-west Pacific will be ruled through the British Empire.

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Extra resources for Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the Challenge of the United States, 1939–46: A Study in International History

Sample text

53 The enquiry was indicative of the administration's profound concern that Japan was intent on pursuing a policy of southward expansion. This increased the importance of the Pacific Dominions in American policymaking. 54 But the containment of Germany imposed significant constraints on American strategy in the Pacific. In the summer of 1939 Washington's Joint Planning Board considered various wartime scenarios that pitted the United States against Germany and Japan. 55 In June 1940, however, a Joint Planning Committee report argued that the United States would have to adopt a defensive posture in the Pacific, despite the location of the US Navy's main fleet at Pearl Harbor.

Cash and carry' provisions represented a significant victory for the President, but he still had to tread 32 Britain, Australia, New Zealand and the Challenge of the United States warily on the world stage because American public opinion was generally opposed to foreign entanglements. In these difficult circumstances, he tried to ensure that American defence policy was conducted along bipartisan lines and awarded key posts within his administration to two leading Republicans: Henry Stimson was appointed Secretary of War; Frank Knox became Secretary of the Navy.

But it was reluctant to go further. In September the Japanese finally decided to take advantage of France's fall to occupy northern areas of French Indochina, but the administration only decided to make iron and steel scrap subject to an embargo. US naval planners were emphatic: the US Navy would be unable to mount offensive operations against Japan. 38 With Britain fighting a life and death struggle in Europe, Roosevelt and Hull were reluctant to cross swords with a major Asian power. In effect, Australia and New Zealand were not yet able to convince the Roosevelt administration of the advantages of American involvement in the defence of the south-west Pacific.

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