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By Juan-Francisco Martín, Carlos García-Estrada, Susanne Zeilinger

This quantity describes the extra suitable secondary metabolites of alternative fungi with present info on their biosynthesis and molecular genetics. reinforced with colour illustrations and pictures, the e-book describes the potential software of molecular genetics to directed pressure development in nice aspect. the desires for destiny advancements during this box also are mentioned at length

Written via professionals within the box, Biosynthesis and Molecular Genetics of Fungal Secondary Metabolites presents a state-of-the-art standpoint on fungal secondary metabolism and underlying genetics and is a helpful source for scientists, researchers, and educators within the box of fungal biology.

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Extra info for Biosynthesis and Molecular Genetics of Fungal Secondary Metabolites

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Chrysogenum was cloned and its direct involvement in the penicillin biosynthesis process was demonstrated [69]. It was also seen that this gene was not the only one encoding a PCL activity. In fact, a second gene (phlB) was cloned later, which was proposed to encode a PCL enzyme with a PTS1 signal involved in the activation of phenylacetic acid [70]. However, studies from Koetsier et al. [71, 72] revealed that the phlB gene (also named aclA) is not involved in the activation of phenylacetic acid, since it encodes a broad spectrum ACL protein that activates adipic acid.

Chrysogenum IAT is posttranslationally regulated by its preprotein, which interferes with the self-processing [57]. The IAT is located inside the microbodies (peroxisomes), since it bears a consensus peroxisomal targeting sequence of type 1 (PTS1) at the C-terminus [37, 58, 59]. It is now well established that peroxisomes are required for efficient penicillin biosynthesis in P. chrysogenum [60] and that the penicillin biosynthetic pathway is compartmentalized between the cytosol and peroxisomes [24].

This organization facilitates the supply of cofactors and precursors from primary metabolism in an optimal way. Not only peroxisomes are important organelles in the penicillin biosynthetic process (side chain activation and further addition to IPN/6-APA), but mitochondria and vacuoles as well. Mitochondria are essential for the biosynthesis of the precursor amino acid α(alpha)-aminoadipic acid [74, 75], whereas vacuoles control the concentration of free amino acids in the cytosol, namely L-α(alpha)-aminoadipic acid and L-cysteine, which may be toxic at moderate concentrations [76, 77].

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