By Philip Nelson
Physics and engineering departments are development study courses in organic physics, yet formerly there has no longer been a synthesis of this dynamic box on the undergraduate point. organic Physics makes a speciality of new leads to molecular automobiles, self-assembly, and single-molecule manipulation that experience revolutionized the sector in recent times, and integrates those issues with classical effects. The textual content additionally offers foundational fabric for the rising box of nanotechnology. The textual content is equipped round a self-contained middle aimed toward undergraduate scholars who've had 365 days of calculus-based physics. extra "Track-2" sections comprise extra complicated fabric for senior physics majors and graduate scholars.
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Additional resources for Biological Physics: Energy, Information, Life
4 liters/hour. What, if anything, can you say about the type of food materials being consumed? e. During exercise, the metabolic rate increases. Someone performing hard labor for 10 hours a day might need about 3500 kcal of food per day. Suppose the person does mechanical work at a steady rate of 50 W over 10 hours. We can deﬁne the body’s eﬃciency as the ratio of mechanical work done to excess energy intake (beyond the BMR calculated in (b)). Find this eﬃciency. 9 · 1026 W. At Earth this gives an incident energy ﬂux 28 Chapter 1.
9 · 1026 W. At Earth this gives an incident energy ﬂux 28 Chapter 1. 4 kW/m2 . In this problem we’ll investigate whether any other planets in our solar system could support the sort of water-based life we ﬁnd on Earth. Consider a planet orbiting at distance d from the Sun (and let de be Earth’s distance). At this distance the Sun’s energy ﬂux is I = Ie (de /d)2 , since it falls oﬀ as the inverse square of distance. Let’s call the planet’s radius R and suppose that it absorbs a fraction α of the incident sunlight, reﬂecting the rest back into space.
We’ll see how this gave Einstein a way to measure how big atoms are, without ever needing to manipulate them individually. And. . Atoms really are that size! What did we really accomplish here? This isn’t the end, it’s the beginning: We didn’t ﬁnd any explanation of frictional drag, nor of diﬀusion, yet. But we know a lot about how that theory should work. 10. This helps in ﬁguring out the real theory. 4 Some notational conventions involving ﬂux and density To illustrate how units help us disentangle related concepts, consider a family of related quantities that will be used throughout the book.