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By Dr. Kamalesh Kumar

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Some of the catastrophic earthquakes of the world are Tangshan of China (1976, casualty > 3 lakhs), Mexico city (1985, casualty > 10,000) and North-West Turkey (August 17, 1999, casualty > 20,000). In India, casualty wise, the first three events are Kangra (>20,000), Bihar-Nepal (>10,653) and Killari (>10,000). Moreover, Indian-Subcontinent, particularly the northeastern region, is one of the most earthquakes-prone regions of the world. Like any other natural disaster, it is not possible to prevent earthquakes from occurring.

Fig. 16 explains about different fault classifications. Fig. edu) Normal faulting is indicative of a region that is stretching, and on the continents, normal faulting usually occurs in regions with relatively high elevation such as plateaus. Reverse faulting reflects compressive forces squeezing a region and they are common in uplifting mountain ranges and along the coast of many regions bordering the Pacific Ocean. The largest earthquakes are generally low-angle (shallow dipping) reverse faults associated with “subduction” plate boundaries.

The tremor lasted for about two minutes, killing four human lives and damaging buildings, railway tracts and roads. 34 Basic Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Fig. 1 at the end of chapter shows major tectonic features of the Indian Ocean showing spreading of Arabian Sea on either side of the Carlsberg Ridge. 4 FREQUENCY OF EARTHQUAKE Seismologists seem not to believe that there is upheaval in the occurrence of earthquakes. 6) recently occur all over the world. However, these were found to occur in uninhabited areas or virtually uninhabited areas.

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