By Yang J.T., Yang J.N.
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Extra info for An outline of scientific writing for researchers with English as a foreign language
5in b932-ch01 DNA Polymerases manipulation of DNA molecules such as DNA ligases, which join contiguous ends of DNA chains, various DNA exonucleases, and special DNA endonucleases, called restriction nucleases, that can modify DNA ends or cut DNA molecules at specific sequences respectively. (The latter studies earned Werner Arber, Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans (1928–1999) the Nobel Prize in 1978 for their applications to problems of molecular genetics). 49 The combined use of such enzymes has allowed the artificial manipulation of DNA molecules that soon led to important technical advances such as sequencing of DNA, that made it possible to sequence the genome of many organisms, including the human genome; gene cloning and genetic engineering, that have led and will lead to a cascade of progress and practical benefits in medicine, agriculture and chemical industry.
On the contrary, Spadari and Weissbach in 197469 and Smith et al. in 197570 with antibodies prepared against human high molecular weight DNA pol and Brun et al. 5in b932-ch01 DNA Polymerases in 197571 with antibodies against avian high- and low-molecular weight DNA pols, showed an absence of cross-reaction between the two DNA pols. No cross-reactivity was also found with any of the oncornavirus reverse transcriptases, just discovered by Temin and Baltimore, or with another DNA pol found in Weissbach’s laboratory (1972, 1973) in human cells and named R-DNA pol for is ability to copy, much better than the low molecular weight enzyme, a deoxyprimed homoribotemplate such as oligo(dT)/poly(A) (see section on DNA pol γ).
Thus he also found that 2 , 3 -dideoxyribonucleoside 5 -triphosphates (ddNTPs), the analogs of the natural 2 -deoxyribonucleotide substrates of DNA pol, but lacking the 3 -hydroxyl group functioning as a primer, bind as well to the dNTPs binding site. In fact, ddTTP binds even better than dTTP. In the presence of an excess of DNA pol, ddNTPs are also incorporated and then function as DNA chain terminators. These results inspired Frederick Sanger to develop his chain-termination technique of determining the sequence of a DNA chain,40 and for this in 1980, he received with Walter Gilbert and Paul Berg a second Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 22 years after earning his first Nobel Prize in Chemistry for determining the complete amino acid sequence of insulin.