By Eric P. Koehler David, W. Fowler
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Extra info for AGGREGATES IN SELFCONSOLIDATING CONCRETE
2003) reported on a classified fly ash with a mean particle size of 3 µm and 90% of material smaller than 7 µm. This smaller particle size increased the reactivity, leading to increased compressive strength and improved durability. Despite the smaller size, the use of classified fly ash reduced water demand and reduced drying and autogenous shrinkage. Even at an age of 1 day, the compressive strength could be maintained by using the classified fly ash and reducing the water-cement ratio to take advantage of the water reducing characteristics.
2 Empirical Approaches to Selecting Aggregates The numerous empirical approaches to selecting aggregates may be applicable in whole or in part to proportioning SCC. Many of the approaches described in the literature in the past century our now considered outmoded. This section describes packing density, the excess paste theory and its derivatives, the Shilstone method, water requirement equations, and the ACI 211 method. It is not intended to be comprehensive. Despite the theoretical rigor of some packing density models, packing density is considered an empirical approach because it gives an indirect indication of factors such as aggregate geometry and provides indirect predictions of concrete rheology.
31) where di and dj are the diameters of particles in class i and j, respectively. 73 for crushed aggregates. 27 De Larrard (1999a) uses values from the compressible packing model along with other characteristics to predict concrete properties such as slump, yield stress, plastic viscosity, and compressive strength. The compressible packing model can also be used to predict segregation by determining the filling proportion ( φ i φ i* ) for each size fraction, where φ i* is the maximum density of size class i given the presence of other particles.