Download Aerodynamic characteristics of multi-surface aircraft by Z. Patek, L. Smrcek PDF

By Z. Patek, L. Smrcek

Airplane layout 2 (1999) 191 - 206

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Extra info for Aerodynamic characteristics of multi-surface aircraft configurations

Example text

It set the first helicopter distance record, 360 m. 4 m in diameter and a 4S hp Hispano engine had inadequate lift). For control, he warped the biplane blades to change their pitch 14 INTRODUCTION angle. Pescara was the first to demonstrate effective cyclic for control of the main rotors. (Cyclic pitch is a sinusoidal. ) Pescara's helicopter set a distance record (736 m), but had stability problems. Emile and Henry Berliner (United States, 1920-1925) built a helicopter using two rotors positioned on the tips of a biplane wing in a side-by-side configuration.

N = number of blades. m = blade mass per unit length as a function of r. R Ib = J mr2 dr = moment of inertia of the blade about the center of o rotation. The rotor blade normally is twisted along its length. () = () twr. The linear twist rate 8 tw (equal to the tip pitch minus the root pitch) is normally negative for the helicopter rotor. The following derived quantities "re important: A = rr R2 = rotor disk area. o = Nc/rr R = rotor solidity. 'Y = poe R4 lIb == blade Lock number. The solidity 0 is the ratio of the total blade area (NcR for constant chord) to the total disk area (1TR 2 ).

Blecker (United States, 1930) built a helicopter with four winglike blades. Power was delivered to a propeller on each blade from an engine in the fuselage. Control was by aerodynamic surfaces on the blades and by a tail on the aircraft. The Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute of the Soviet Union developed a series of single rotor helicopters under the direction of Yuriev. The TsAGI I-EA (1931) had a four-bladed main rotor (rotor 11 m in diameter, gross weight 1100 kg, 120 hp engine) with cyclic and collective control, and two small contrarotating antitorque rotors.

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