Download Adaptive Analog VLSI Neural Systems by M. Jabri, R.J. Coggins, B.G. Flower PDF

By M. Jabri, R.J. Coggins, B.G. Flower

amplitude ~---. -----. -----. -----,-----. -----,-,~ VfT:j·" four. 50 four. 00 three. 50 q . three. 00 /'\. ~ -'" : ! . 2. 50 ,: \ . . . 1! -. i "'" " 2. 00 1. 50 ··GO··O_O_ ,-. . . . &. , . ; D Q . " . . . / 1. 00 zero. 50 zero. 00 L. -----1. . ---. . l. -----:-:::''"::-::--::-::-'-:::-::------=--::-'-::-:=---=-=""=_:' five. 00 10. 00 15. 00 determine 7. 1 The morphology of ST and VT retrograde 1:1. © 1995 IEEE [Coggins, labri, Flower and Pickard {1995}]. ing to the analog area. also, using differential pair multipliers and present node summing within the community permits a min­ imum of units within the community itself and for this reason linked discount rates in strength and quarter. in spite of the fact that, within the previous few a long time analog sign processing has been used sparingly end result of the results of gadget off­ units, noise and drift*. The neural community structure alleviates those difficulties to a wide volume since it really is either hugely parallel and adaptive. the truth that the community is informed to acknowledge morphologies with the analog circuits in-loop signifies that the synaptic weights might be tailored to cancel machine offsets [Castro, Tam and Holler (1993); Castro and candy (1993)]. The effect of neighborhood un correlated noise is decreased through the parallelism of * such a lot fabrication techniques were optimised for electronic layout innovations which leads to bad analog performance.

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Transistors is a factor of 2 - 3 lower than nMOS transistors under the same bias conditions, so that a larger device is required to deliver the same gm. The evolution from the basic circuit to higher performance amplifiers follows two possible paths from here - one towards a higher gain single-stage amplifier and the other towards multi-stage versions. We will consider them in that order. 14(a). Transistor Ma represents a common-source amplifying stage, such as one transistor of the differential pair.

25 and operates as follows: At the beginning of the cycle, switch SG is down, grounding the top plates of all capacitors. Ss is up, and the five numbered switches are to the right, connecting all bottom plates to VI. Under these conditions, the total charged stored on the capacitor set is seen to be - 2CV1 • In step 2 of the cycle, SG switches up, isolating the top plates, the numbered switches move to the left, grounding the bottom plates and Ss moves to the reference voltage position. At this point, no charge transfer has taken place, the total charge stored is as before, but the comparator input voltage has fallen to - VI.

12 Switched-capacitor inverting amplifier for (a) single-ended inputs and (b) differential inputs. of the inverter are shorted. 7( c). The output node via C3 is also grounded. On dock phase 4>2, the left side of C 1 rises to VI, while its right side is held dose to the Q voltage by negative feedback through C 2 • To conserve charge, therefore, V2 must fall by -VI Cd C 2 and this voltage change is coupled via C 3 to the output node. Switch S4 then stores the new voltage on C4 • Like the original inverter, this is still a single-ended amplifier, but the signals are now referenced to ground and the offset voltage is due to second-order effects, namely, finite gain in the inverter and charge injection from the MOS switches.

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