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By Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz

Understanding acid-base equilibria made effortless for college students in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, environmental and earth sciences. fixing chemical difficulties, be it in schooling or in genuine lifestyles, usually calls for the certainty of the acid-base equilibria in the back of them. in line with decades of educating adventure, Heike Kahlert and Fritz Scholz current a robust instrument to fulfill such demanding situations. they supply an easy advisor to the basics and purposes of acid-base diagrams, warding off advanced arithmetic. This textbook is richly illustrated and has complete colour all through. It deals studying positive aspects resembling boxed effects and a suite of formulae.

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3 Very Weak Bases As an example, a solution of sodium chloride is chosen: the chloride anion is the very weak base corresponding to the very strong acid HCl. The aqua-complex of sodium ions is a very weak acid in terms of the Brønsted acid–base definition, and hence it does not affect the pH of the solution (see Sect. 4). In case of a NaCl solution, the Eqs. , the amount balance and the charge balance, have to be fulfilled: À C BÀ ¼ cHB þ cB (61) cH3 Oþ ¼ cOHÀ À cHB (62) Equation (62) indicates that the real pH of the NaCl solution has to be – no matter how little – right to the point P1 in Fig.

1 Monobasic Acids and Their Corresponding Bases Fig. 75) À6 at C mol LÀ1 HB ¼ 10 Fig. 75) À10 at C mol LÀ1 HB ¼ 10 43 44 4 The Application of pH-logci Diagrams for. . 1 mol LÀ1: the aqua-complex of sodium is a very weak Brønsted acid, and therefore only the protonation of formate ions can affect the pH. The charge balance gives for this base solution: cH3 Oþ ¼ cOHÀ À cHB (62) This equation indicates that the pH must be higher than the pH of point P1 in Fig. 39, as otherwise the sum of cH3 Oþ þ cHB would be larger than cOHÀ .

If one would try to prepare an aqueous solution of 10À1 mol LÀ1 of sodium ethanolate (cf. Fig. 45), the following charge balance must hold: cH3 Oþ ¼ cOHÀ À cHB (62) This means that the pH of the solution must be situated slightly to the right of the pH-coordinate of P1 in Fig. 45, since on the left side of P1 the sum cH3 Oþ þ cHB is always larger than the concentration OHÀ (in other words, the overall concentration of OHÀ results from the protolysis of BÀand autoprotolysis of water). The concentration of H3 Oþ at P1 is about 10À13 mol LÀ1, and so it can be neglected in the charge balance, and the pH is given by the pH-coordinate of the crossing point of the OHÀ and ethanol (HB) lines: cOHÀ % cHB (78) The diagram also reveals that the equilibrium concentration of ethanolate ions can be neglected in relation to the ethanol concentration, so that the amount balance can be approximated by the relationship: cHB % C BÀ (106) This makes it possible to derive a simplified equation by using the Eqs.

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