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By Majid Fakhry

The 1st accomplished survey of Islamic philosophy from the 7th century to the current, this vintage discusses Islamic concept and its impact at the cultural features of Muslim lifestyles. Fakhry exhibits how Islamic philosophy has from the earliest occasions a particular line of improvement, which supplies it the team spirit and continuity which are the marks of the good highbrow hobbies of historical past. (Fall 2006)

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20 (Henry, p. 221). 93 BadawT, Plotinus apud Arabes, pp. 23 f. (Henry, pp. ). 24 THE LEGACY OF GREECE, ALEXANDRIA, AND THE ORIENT The author of the Theologia also gives Plato the credit for introducing the distinction between sensible and intelligible entities and for ascribing to the latter the character of permanence and immutability and to the former that of perpetual flux. 94 A too literal interpretation of Plato might lead one to believe that the Pure Good was supposed to have created Reason, Soul, and Nature in time.

Ca. ) and Pythagoras (d. ). The former is said to have received instruction in wisdom (bilanah) from Luqman, the legendary sage mentioned in the Koran. Al-Sharastani attributes to Empedocles the view that God created the world out of nothing and being composite, such a world is made up of four passive elements, water, air, fire, and earth, dominated by two active principles, Love and Conquest (Philia and Neikos ), as Empedocles actually called them. As for Pythagoras, who is said to have received wisdom from Solomon, he is commended for his piety and his preeminence in the fields of music, arithmetic, and geometry, which he is said to have learned from the Egyptians.

4 The Arabs, who as we have mentioned were preoccupied with the task of harmonizing not only Greek philosophy and Islamic dogma, but also the divergent elements in Greek philosophy itself, must have looked upon the 82 Cf. Dieterici, Al-Farabts Philosophischen Abhandlugen, p. ;o. 83 Cf. Badawi (ed. ), Plotinus apud Arabes, pp. 1-164, and Kraus, "Plotin chez les Arabes," Bull. de l'Institut d'Egypte, 23 (1941), p. 267. Cf. English version, Plotini Opera, II, ed. Henry and Schweyzer (hereafter cited as "Henry").

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