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Ommaya, eponymous founder of the Umayyads, was Qusayy’s great-grandson. The Umayyads would later found Islam’s first dynastic caliphate. Thereafter, empires throughout the Islamic world would be ruled by familial dynasties, some of whom, such as the Abbasids who succeeded the Umayyads, claimed the right to rule by virtue of lineage to the prophet Muhammad’s family; Muhammad’s uncle, Al-Abbas, also a descendant of Hashim, was the progenitor of the Abbasid caliphate. Through Muhammad, the Hashim line also produced the Alid dynasty of Shia imams (that is, hereditary leaders of the Islamic community believed by Shia to be divinely chosen) and the Hashemite monarchs, King Abdullah and his successors, who began rule of Jordan in the 20th century.

C. D. sixth century). D. ) However, Saba remained the dominant power. The Sabaean civilization was technologically and socially advanced and had one of the region’s strongest armies. The crowning achievement of the civilization was the construction of the Marib Dam, said to have measured some 50 feet (16 m) high, almost 200 feet (60 m) wide, and some 2,000 feet (620 m) long. It included a sluice system, diversion wall, and settling basin. C. 5 square miles. Nearby was the capital city of Marib.

After leading them in prayer, Muhammad was taken to the seven spheres of heaven, where his mission on Earth was affirmed. From here, he also saw the suffering of those damned to hell and the paradise awaiting those who followed God’s will. It was during this journey that he received instructions that Muslims should pray five times each day. ” This latter reference was originally thought to mean heaven. But after the capital of Islam moved to Damascus under the 37 A BRIEF HISTORY OF SAUDI ARABIA Umayyad caliphs, the phrase “farthest place of worship” was reinterpreted as Jerusalem, former site of the Temple of Solomon.

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